With the Cavaliers, Tories sided with the crown in the English Civil War. Originally a term of abuse (tóraí in Irish Gaelic means ‘outlaw’), Tories resisted Cromwell’s subjugation of Ireland in 1649-50. After the Restoration, they upheld the right of James II, a Catholic, to succeed his brother, King Charles II.
The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) ended nearly a quarter century of warfare between Britain and France. When Queen Anne died in 1714, Lord Bolingbroke, the Tory minister who negotiated the peace, took refuge in Paris at the court of King Louis XIV, where the son of the deposed King James II was also in exile. For the next 45 years Tories were proscribed from holding public office in Britain.